Videogaming’s Killer App
Nolan Bushnell misses the ball with his Computer Space, the flaccid-selling coin-op video game he makes for Nutting Associates in 1971. At least the futuristic fiberglass cabinet design is a hit though, as the game shows up as a prop near the beginning of the seminal cheesy 1973 SF movie Soylent Green, as a gift given to Joseph Cotten’s female “furniture”, the mistress character played by co-star Leigh Taylor Young.
“Avoid Missing Ball For High Score”
The first product is to be a driving game, and 25-year old Al Alcorn, the circuit design engineer Ampex had hired to replace Bushnell, is lured over from the company to join Atari and build it. Deciding instead to break Alcorn in with what in Bushnell’s mind is a throwaway experiment, he asks him to build a simplistic Ping-Pong game, where players control paddles knocking a ball back and forth across the screen. Bushnell prods Alcorn along by telling him the company already has a contract with General Electric to distribute a home version of the game, although there is no such agreement. Though Bushnell’s design demands impossible-for-the-day sound effects like a roaring crowd, Alcorn pulls beeps and blips that are already present in the circuitry for the sound…and when Alcorn describes the noise of the ball hitting the paddles, he inadvertently names the game…PONG. The electronic guts are entirely solid-state and hardwired…no ROMs or microprocessors are present. This baby is made to do one thing and one thing only, play PONG. Bushnell makes sure you only need one hand to do it, so bar patrons can hold their beer in the other. After much agonizing about various minutia such as the speed of the ball and how fast the spin-dial control moves the paddles, a prototype system is constructed by Alcorn.
The instructions for the world’s next arcade videogame are legendarily simple: “AVOID MISSING BALL FOR HIGH SCORE”. Everybody in the lab has so much fun playing the game that it is decided to try and market it, although it is seen as a stepping stone…Bushnell plans to quickly leave PONG behind and build a “real”, more complex game. He goes on a trip to Chicago to shop the system to two pinball giants there. Meanwhile, Atari has installed the PONG prototype in a local Sunnyvale, California watering hole called Andy Capp’s Tavern. Within two days Alcorn gets an irate call from the bartender telling him that the game is broken and to “get the fucking thing out of here”. When he arrives at the bar to examine it, Alcorn discovers that the machine doesn’t work because the coin mechanism has been filled with so many quarters that it is overflowing and shorting out the machine. It’s thus determined that Atari could have a genre-defining hit on their hands, but Bushnell is in a bind: both Chicago companies he has talked to have expressed interest in the game concept. To avoid burning bridges, Bushnell creates a fiction: he tells the first one that the other has passed on PONG, and he uses the first’s subsequent withdrawal from the deal to quash the interest of the second.
In 1979 Andy Capp’s, the location for the first PONG beta test, becomes a comedy club called Rooster T. Feathers, where a sign on the wall will proudly trumpet its role in video game history, although they wrongly label PONG as the “very first” video arcade game.
With the evidence of the game’s success overflowing from the prototype’s coin bucket, Bushnell decides Atari will build PONG itself. He rents a 25,000-square foot, abandoned roller skating rink in Santa Clara, California and hires a few dozen locals. By late 1972 Atari is cranking out big brown and yellow PONG cabinets, with an initial slow-rollout to a few West Coast distributors and eventually moving nationally in early 1973. The game is a smash, pulling in $300 a week in quarters, where pinball machines at the time average $40. Atari sells 8,500 machines in one year, at a time when 2,000 pinball games is considered a successful run. The PONG cabinets have an initial production cost of 500 dollars per unit and a sales price of $1,200 each. The game Bushnell considered a quickie knock-off will carry his company for the next two years. With success comes the need for some company branding, so freelance artist George Opperman is commissioned to create a new logo. Meant to represent a stylized “A” for Atari, his design also plays on the idea of two video game players facing off, with the PONG net between them. The design becomes known as the Atari “Fuji”, due to it evoking Japan’s famous Mt. Fuji. Opperman later heads up Atari’s Graphic Design group.
1973 sees the start of a trend that will dog the industry forever more…a flood of imitations following in the wake of a hit game. Literally dozens of PONG clones hit the market, including Midway’s Winner, actually made after the company obtains a license from Atari for the technology. It also has video-out circuitry, allowing for the game to be broadcast on a TV set at the location, if a bar wants to annoy everyone in the place, for instance. The rest of these unofficial imitations come from outfits like Nutting Associates, Bushnell’s old employer. Their 1973 Wimbledon, where players use physical sliders to control their paddles, at least has the innovation of being one of the first true-colour video games (along with Atari’s own true-colour version of Gotcha, closely preceding NA’s game, see below). Other companies add token improvements to their games over the original, such as the ability to vary ball speed or giving the players a button to serve. In the case of Ramtek, they create what is touted as the first video game that can accomodate lone players as well as a two-player mode with Clean Sweep, where the gamer uses a paddle to knock a ball upwards into a playfield full of dots. When the ball moves through the dots they disappear, the goal being to erase them all and thereby achieving the titular clean sweep.
Elopong – Taito, Hockey TV, Pong Tron, Pong Tron II – SEGA, Paddle Ball – Williams, Pro Hockey – Taito, Super Soccer, Tennis Tourney, Paddle Battle – Allied Leisure, TV Football, TV Ping Pong, TV Tennis – Chicago Coin, TV Ping Pong – Amuntronics, TV Table Tennis – PMC, Winner (made under licence from Atari), Winner IV – Midway
Along with all the clones Atari makes themselves:
Dr. PONG, Pin PONG, PONG Cocktail,
PONG Doubles, Puppy PONG, Quadrapong,
Rebound, Spike, Super PONG
Even old-time billiards and bowling champ Brunswick gets in on the video ping-pong action with Astrohockey, developed by HID/Visco Games and built at the Brunswick factory in Muskegon, Michigan. Thiers is a similar innovation to Midway’s Winner, where a model with a remote control monitor is available for mounting above bars. Initially, Bushnell takes all this copying of his product as a badge of honour, telling trade magazine Cash Box in the spring of 1973, “We’re really very pleased by the number of manufacturers who are trying to copy PONG. It tells us that our product is superior and that the rest of the industry is interested, and willing to follow our lead into new, high profit areas.” However, things get so brazen with these PONG copies that, during a trade show in the fall of the year, Bushnell stands up during a Q&A session with “leading” video game developers during a seminar about the future of the industry, and demands they admit they’re building their futures on the back of the game his company designed. Whether it has slipped Bushnell’s mind that he himself built his company on the backs of Ralph Baer and Magnavox remains a mystery. Atari Co-founder Ted Dabney sells his half of the company to Bushnell in early 1974, feeling pushed-out and underappreciated, and indeed out of his element as the head of Atari’s exploding production facilities. He is also rattled by all the new competition, most of whom have bigger cash reserves and larger presences in the entertainment sector. As part of the deal, he walks away with the name Syzygy, with a plan to operate independently as Syzygy Game Company.
Atari, though, is the clear market leader, pulling in $3.2 million in video game sales for that year. Bushnell realizes that the only way to compete is to out-innovate the competition. While Atari does mine the PONG bonanza with PONG Doubles, they also create the first arcade maze game with Gotcha, which causes some controversy with its pink rubber joystick coverings. These result in the game being referenced internally at Atari as “the Boob game”. The costing (and probably wear-and-tear concerns) of these questionable covers has them removed from the game shortly after release, although one also hopes taste has something to do with it. A version with its screen tinted with a colour overlay is also released, along with a version generating real colours, which makes it the first colour arcade game.
Strong competition in regards to technical innovation comes with rival Kee Games, headed by Joe Keenan. In late 1973 several key Atari employees defect to Kee, including early Atari engineer Steve Bristow. Kee releases Elimination around the same time, a game that lets four players compete in a square Pong-type battle, where when a player lets the ball past their paddle into the hole they are protecting four times, they are eliminated from the board, leaving the rest to battle it out. In December of 1973 Joe Keenan announces that his company has reached an agreement to license the game to Atari, who sells their own version as QuadraPong. In 1974 Kee releases Bristow’s Tank. Gameplay consists of two tanks facing off in a maze, while trying to avoid land mines scattered about. The game breaks new technical ground by incorporating ROM chips to hold graphics memory, enabling it to display more complicated detail on-screen than the simple square and rectangular blocks of PONG. Tank becomes the biggest hit of 1974. This same year, Bushnell announces that Atari has ‘acquired’ an interest in Kee and that “We are happy that the people at Kee and at Atari have been able to resolve the problems that led to the original split last summer.” As it turns out, the whole thing has been an elaborate ruse: Kee is actually a secret subsidiary of Atari, set up in a “split” from from the game company to circumvent a holdover from the pinball era where regional distributors demanded exclusive rights to a company’s games. As per the acquisition announcement, Joe Keenan will remain as president of Kee, with financial support from Atari. The company goes on to follow up Tank with three sequels, including 1978’s UltraTank, which allows players to battle the computer, if there isn’t another human tank driver handy. It also offers eight different options in game play to players, including different play fields, mines, bouncing or guided shells, as well as a “camouflage” mode where the tanks only appear when firing or when hit. Choices are made by flicking toggle switches on the cabinet. Eight is also the number of people who can play Tank 8 simultaneously, a game released in 1976 and allowing eight players to stand around the unit with their own controls and battle against each other. Other games manufactured by Atari under the Kee label are:
Elimination – 1973, Formula K – 1974, Spike – 1974, Twin Racer – 1974,
Crossfire – 1975, Indy 800 – 1975, Tank II – 1975, Flyball – 1976,
Quiz Show – 1976, Sprint II – 1976, Drag Race – 1977,
Sprint 8 – 1977, Super Bug – 1977, Ultra Tank – 1978
PONG Bounces Home
1974 sees Atari with an 81% increase in sales for the first half of the fiscal year over the same period the previous year. By 1975 there are around 500 employees working at its facilities in Los Gatos and Santa Clara, with 30 engineers ensconced at its far-flung Grass Valley research lab north of Sacramento. One employee, Harold Lee, proposes taking Atari into the consumer electronics realm: a home version of PONG, able to be hooked up to any TV set. Lee, Bob Brown and and Alcorn produce the system, giving it the codename Darlene and starting a long Atari engineering department tradition of naming systems after female co-workers. However, retailers are skittish over the lack of fire ignited by Magnavox’s TV-based Odyssey game, and system languishes in the Atari labs. In 1975 they cut a deal with Tom Quinn, head purchaser for the sporting goods department at national retailer Sears, to sell the system under the Sears Tele-Games label. The order is for 150,000 units. Bushnell has nowhere near the facilities to produce that many in the time Sears wants them, so he taps venture capitalist Don Valentine for a $10 million line-of-credit to expand. Released in October, Atari’s $100 home PONG console becomes Sears biggest selling item, with reports of people waiting outside stores for hours to get one. And once again, manufacturers swarm out of the woodwork, this time with myriad versions of home PONG games. Around $250 million worth of PONG-type games for the TV are sold by various manufactures in 1975., with prices ranging from $60 to $120 depending on what game options are available, or whether the display is B&W or colour. The simple table-tennis game is expanded to include hockey, handball, multiplayer doubles tennis, skeet shooting with a light gun, among other offerings.
PONG On A Chip
By mid-1976, the market has expanded from two companies involved in home video games to over 70, all making clones of Atari’s home PONG game. This insane ballooning of the number of game manufacturers is facilitated by the new AY-3-8500 “PONG-On-A-Chip” LSI (Large-Scale Integration) microchip released by General Instrument Corp early in 1976. The single videogame integrated chip (IC) had been developed at the GI Glenrothes plant in Scotland in 1975, at the behest of Finnish TV manufacturer Salora Oy for use in a new TV design. As the popularity of GI’s game IC spread around Europe in a PAL TV version, work on a NTSC version for North American use was begun in Hicksville, NY. The IC incorporates all of the circuitry needed for a videogame, including sound, and offers these games: tennis, soccer, squash and a one-player practice mode of handball, along with two rifle-shooting games. It also provides character generation for scoring, as well as externally selectable bat sizes and ball speed. Steep or shallow return angles can also be adjusted, and the choice of manual or automatic serving is also available. At a cost of $5 to $6 per chip, depending on volume pricing, the rush on this IC is so intense that only Coleco receives their full shipment order in time to mass manufacture a large enough supply of videogame units for sale over the 1976 Christmas season. The release of its Telstar video table tennis unit, retailing for half as much as Atari’s console, increases the company’s overall sales by 65 percent. Other game makers sell every console they can produce in 1976, helping to move about 3,390,000 units and creating estimated sales of $187 million dollars for the year. In 1977 General Instrument is producing between 1 to 1.2 million PONG ICs per month. Later updates to the chip result in the faster AY-3-8606-1 “PONG” IC. In 1978 they release the AY-3-8700 single chip “Tank” IC, complete with rotating tanks, explosions and tank sounds, among other video delights.
Warner Serves Up a Deal
In 1975 Atari pulls in $3.5 million of net income on around 40 million dollars of revenue for the fiscal year, marking it as a hot high-tech company. In 1976 the coin-operated video game market as a whole sees $83 million in production, and on August 11 of the year Atari announces it has rolled out the 500,000th home video game from its Sunnyvale facility. Atari’s meteoric rise draws the attention of Emanuel Gerard, a member of CEO Steve Ross’ inner-circle at huge media conglomerate Warner Communications. Gerard is part of a team, titled “Office of the President”, which is tasked by Ross to seek out possible acquisitions for Warner. With Atari making impressive revenues in an expanding market but run by a team of creatives lacking in big industry savvy, it seems a no-brainer to Gerard to pick it up. Atari has also come to the personal attention of Ross in 1976, via a trip to Disneyland in California. Unable to pull his family members away from an Atari Tank 8 game in the arcade there, Ross quickly realizes the profit potential in electronic games. At Atari, Nolan Bushnell sees the glut of similar products flooding the market, and knows his company has to out-innovate in order to stay on top. He has created a new consumer products division within Atari, but to make the next big moves in the market he needs access to a vast amount of cash. The stock market of the mid-70’s is no place to try and raise cash for a small company, so when conglomerate Warner comes calling with a deal, Bushnell jumps in it. On October 1, 1976, he signs the contract to sell Atari to Warner for $28 million in cash and debt acquisition, with Joe Keenan as President and Bushnell pocketing $16 million and the title of chairman of the board. This new infusion of capital is applied to the development of a project inside Atari that will revolutionize the way people play games, and render the market the company itself had created for dedicated PONG games obsolete. It will soon launch the videogame industry into the mainstream and make the brand name Atari as ubiquitous as Coke and Kleenex. This project’s codename? Stella.
Sources (Click to view; inert links are kept for historical purposes)
Videogaming’s Killer App
The Development of PONG
DP Royal Archives – Hollywood/Video Games pt 5 – digitpress.com/archives/arc00041.htm
“Moments of Truth.” Next Generation, Nov. 1998, p. 112. He [Nolan Bushnell] told Alcorn that he had just signed a contract with General Electric to design a home electronic game based on ping-pong… This was a lie. So he [Bushnell] told another lie and played one side against the other…[etc. etc.]
Electric Escape – The Atari Timeline by Robert A. Jung – www.digiserve.com/eescape/atari/Atari-Timeline.html#1972
CHEGheads Blog, “By Any Other Name: The Origin of Atari”, by Shannon Symonds, May 16 2011
Image of Al Alcorn at the 25th anniversary of the C64 from flickr, Vonguard photo stream
The Arcade Flyer Archive – www.arcadeflyers.com/?page=home
The Revolutionaries: Nolan Bushnell – www.thetech.org/revolutionaries/bushnell/i_a.htmlAtari/Syzygy “SA” logo from Atari Connection, “If Atari Isn’t a Japanese Company, Why Does It Have a Japanese Name?”, by Joel Miller, pg. 19, Summer 1981
Sensei’s Library, “Japanese Go Terms”, Aug. 11 2013
Image of Al Alcorn’s Syzygy business card taken at the Videogame History Museum display, CGE 2014 in Las Vegas
Image of exterior of Rooster T. Feathers from their Facebook photo stream – www.facebook.com/RoosterTFeathers/photos_stream
Associate-manuel-dennis. “PONG Into National Distribution; Success for Atari, Inc.” Cash Box, 7 Apr. 1973, p. 104. Images: PONG creators gathered around cabinet; PONG cabinets being manufactured on factory floor; Other info: Ted Dabney, now vice president and in charge of production facilities.; Bushnell quote on PONG clones; PONG was originally available to a few distributors on the West Coast. Then the company moved into larger facilities to meet a growing demand for the game. With additional facilities being planned, national distribution is now underway.
Redlands Daily Facts (UPI), “Computerized ‘pinball’ may catch on”, by Richard Harnett, pg. A6, Feb. 28, 1973
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “Atari/Midway Pact.” Cash Box 17 Mar. 1973: 56. Internet Archive. 26 Sept. 2016. Web. 9 Oct. 2019. <https://archive.org/details/cashbox34unse_37/page/n56>. Nolan Bushnell, president of Atari Inc., has announced the granting of a license to Midway Manufacturing Co., allowing Midway to produce its latest video game.
Space Race. Los Gatos: Atari, 1973. The Arcade Flyer Archive. Dphower, 18 May 2007. Web. 02 Oct. 2019. <https://flyers.arcade-museum.com/?page=flyer&db=videodb&id=5397&image=1>. Image of Space Race Flyer, 1973
PONG’s Impact on the Industry
Denzquix. “Wimbledon Sales Flyer.” 1973. Internet Archive, archive.org/details/arcadeflyer_wimbledon/page/n1.
Atari, Inc. “Gotcha.” Comp. Dphower. The Arcade Flyer Archive. N.p., 28 May 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2019. Flyer for Gotcha, 1973
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “Kee Game, Atari Pact.” Cash Box 15 Dec. 1973: 42. Internet Archive. 26 Sept. 2016. Web. 25 Sept. 2019. <https://archive.org/details/cashbox35unse_24/page/42>. Joe Keenan, president of Kee Games advised last week that he and Atari, Inc. chief Nolan Bushnell have come to a licensing agreement on Kee’s new game ‘Elimination’.
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “3169 Tradesters Pack MOA’s 25th Anny Trade Show.” Internet Archive. N.p., 26 Sept. 2016. Web. 25 Sept. 2019. Image of Nolan Bushnell and Pat Karns demoing Gotcha, 1973
RetroGameChampion, and John Sellers. “The Visionary.” Arcade Fever – The Fan’s Guide to the Golden Age of Video Games, Running Press Book Publishers, 2001, pp. 18–19. From Nolan Bushnell interview: NB: This was during 1973, and at the fall trade show the conference organizers had set up this seminar called “The Future of the Video-Game Business…[etc.etc.]”
Atari, Inc. “Leisure Time Game Center.” Comp. Dphower. The Arcade Flyer Archive. N.p., 28 May 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2019. Flyer for early Atari arcade games, 1974
Clean Sweep, Ramtek Corporation. Sunnyvale: Ramtek Corporation, 1974. The Arcade Flyer Archive. RamTek Owner, 7 Dec. 2001. Web. 04 Oct. 2019. <https://flyers.arcade-museum.com/?page=flyer&db=videodb&id=2329&image=1>. Flyer for Clean Sweep, 1974
MetroActive News and Issues | Nolan Bushnell – www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/09.16.99/cover/bushnell2-9937.html
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “Atari & Kee Resumes Ties.” Cash Box 02 Feb. 1974: 51. Internet Archive. Web. 22 Sept. 2019. Nolan Bushnell, Atari board chairman, announced the acquisition of an interest in Kee Games, Inc….[etc etc]
Image of Joe Keenan and Nolan Bushnell together, as well as other information, from Video Games, “Video Games Interview – Nolan Bushnell”, by Jerry Bowles, pgs. 16, 19 – 20, 78 – 79, Vol. 1 Num. 1, Aug 1982
Photos of Winner IV were taken by William Hunter at the Musée Mécanique antique coin-op museum, Pier 45, Fisherman’s Wharf, San Francisco
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “New Products from Midway.” Cash Box 28 Apr. 1973: 48+. Print. This game is being built under license and with the cooperations of Atari, Inc….; This unit has extra circuitry to allow the audience to view the match play on the location’s television set, if desired.
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “Pong Doubles 4-Pl. Shipping Everywhere.” Cash Box 13 Oct. 1973: 49. Internet Archive. 26 Sept. 2016. Web. 30 Sept. 2019. <https://archive.org/details/cashbox35unse_15/page/48>. Image of Al Alcorn and Pat Karns in front of PONG Doubles, 1973
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “Atari “Sells” Syzygy.” Cash Box 26 Jan. 1974: 53. Internet Archive. 26 Sept. 2016. Web. 1 Oct. 2019. <https://archive.org/details/cashbox35unse_30/page/52>. The name Syzygy was recently purchased by Ted Dabney and will operate as an independent company under the name of the Syzygy Game Company.
PONG Bounces Home
Home PONG Games Proliferate in the Market
Associate-manuel-dennis, comp. “Atari Brings ‘Pong’ Into the Livingroom.” Cash Box 15 Nov. 1975: 45+. Print. Atari employs some 500 administrative and technical personnel at its primary manufacturing facilities in Los Gatos and Santa Clara, California. A staff of 30 engineers, located at the company’s “think tank” in the Sierra foothills, specializes in games research and development.
“1975 In Review.” Cash Box, 27 Dec. 1975, p. 163. Internet Archive, archive.org/details/cashbox37unse_30/page/n157. January: Atari, Inc reported record sales for the first half of its fiscal year with figures representing an 81% increase in sales over the previous year’s period…; October: Atari markets “Pong” TV home unit through the network of Sears stores
Hawkins, William J. “TV Games: Turn Your Set into a Sports Arena.” Popular Science Nov. 1976: 90. Print. Image of Pong games playing instructions, 1976
OLD COMPUTERS.COM Museum ~ Coleco Telstar – www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?c=665&st=3
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Electronic Games, “A Decade of Programmable Video Games”, pg. 20 – 23, Mar. 1982
Ad for Visulex computerized Ping Pong kit from Byte, pg, 92, Nov 1975
Lauricella, Tom. “Flashbacks of the 1970s for Stock-Market Vets.” WSJ.com. Dow Jones Products, 18 Apr. 2009. Web. 29 Dec. 2015. …investors were dispirited, questioning whether it was really worth the risk to own stocks. “There was almost no interest in being in the stock market,” says Smith Barney’s Mr. Spooner, who started in the business around 1962. It felt like just about any stocks bought in 1972-73 “turned to dust” he says.
Hawkins, William J. “TV Games Turn Your Set into a Sports Arena.” Editorial. Popular Science Nov. 1976: 88-91. Google Books. Google. Web. 2 Nov. 2016. Manufacturers sold about $250-million worth of TV games last year… Prices range from $60 to $120, depending on the type of game…
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Buckwalter, Len. “Cover.” Comp. The History of How We Play. Video Games. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1977. N.p., Internet Archive. Web. 24 Sept. 2019. Image of Super PONG in front of TV with plant, 1977.
Buckwalter, Len. “6 – What to Do in Case of Trouble.” Comp. The History of How We Play. Video Games. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1977. 64. Internet Archive. Web. 24 Sept. 2019. Image of man selecting from home video games on shelf.
Image of AY-3-8606-1 IC pinouts from Radio-Electronics, “Build This – Wipeout Videogame”, by L. Steven Cheairs, pgs. 66-70, Sept 1980
Eimbinder, Jerry, and The History of How We Play. “TV Game Background.” Gamestronics Proceedings, Jan. 1977, pp. 159–165. Internet Archive, archive.org/details/GamtronicsProceedings/page/n159. By the middle of 1976, approximately 70 companies were in the home video game business.
Eimbinder, Jerry, and The History of How We Play. Gamestronics Proceedings, Jan. 1977, p.2 Internet Archive, archive.org/details/GamtronicsProceedings/page/n3. Image of Nolan Bushnell receiving Pioneering award. Photo by Liane Enkelis
1978 image of Atari’s Graphic Design group from Atari Coin Connection, “Behind the Scenes: Atari’s Artists”, edited by Carol Kantor, pg. 2, June 1978. Retrieved from Pinball Pirate, Sep 15 2015.
Image of APF Pong game in the pages of the 1978 Christmas Montgomery Wards catalog from Wishbook’s Flickr photo stream
Image of Bob Brown from Video Games, “Future Shock Talk”, compiled by Bob Mecoy, photo by Victoria Rouse, pg. 38, Vol. 1 Num. 5, Feb 1983
Brownie Harris’ image of Manny Gerard playing Asteroids, and other information from New York magazine, “Steve Ross On the Spot” by Tony Schwartz, pgs. 22-32, Jan 24 1983
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Unannotated, Uncategorized or I Just Can’t Damn Remember!
Atari Gaming Headquarters – www.atarihq.com/
Atari Age, “Game-Grams”, pg. 6, Vol. 1 Num. 2 (relaunch), Jul./Aug. 1982
Radio-Electronics, “Videogames – Videogame History”, by Jerry and Eric Eimbinder, pgs. 50 – 54, July 1982
Videotopia – Arcade Games – www.videotopia.com
Atari Age, “Game-Grams”, pg. 6, Vol. 1 Num. 5, Jan./Feb. 1983
Game industry News – Gameindustry.com
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Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of Videogames, by Leonard Herman – www.rolentapress.com