Over a Barrel
The complete computer package, with an announced $600 price-tag for the stand-alone version that’s far below any other comparable system cost up to that point, attracts a lot of buzz at the Chicago CES. On the show floor, Coleco demonstrates the added storage capabilities of the Adam’s Data Pack cassettes by running its version of Super Donkey Kong on the demo machine. A much-improved home version of Nintendo’s arcade game, featuring the intro with Kong climbing to the top of the structure as well as the 4th mud pie level previously missing in all other versions, the game quickly draws the ire of Atari execs attending the show. They are there to seal a deal with Nintendo to distribute the company’s hit Japanese game console, the Famicom, world-wide. Owning the home computer rights to Donkey Kong, Atari head Ray Kassar complains to Nintendo that they are in breach of contract over Coleco’s version for the Adam computer. Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi subsequently rakes Coleco over the coals, and no assertions about Adam being both a game console AND a computer assuage him. Coleco eventually pulls the game from the Adam library, but the kerfuffle delays the Atari/Nintendo deal long enough to expose serious problems at Atari. In July of 1983, Ray Kassar suddenly steps down as Chairman and CEO, after his company posts a giant loss for the fiscal quarter, and with him embroiled in an insider trading scandal. When John J. Morgan comes over from Philip Morris to replace him, the new CEO places a freeze on new projects and no deal is signed between the two companies. Nintendo eventually goes it alone, and the result is the famous NES console, released wide in North America in 1986.
To further complicate matters, a day after the ADAM release date announcement, the consumer division of AT&T announces a developing joint venture with Coleco; an online interactive game service using existing phone lines. Instead of aping the existing telegaming services like Gameline for the Atari VCS or Playcable for the Intellivision, the system would feature unique two-player games created by Coleco but outside of the ColecoVision milieu. Purchasing a 300 baud modem projected to cost under $100, subscribers would call a 900 flat-rate phone number and be matched with a fellow gamester, playing strategy, arcade and “entertainment software” on either a video game console or a computer. High scores would go on record, and national tournaments a distinct possibility. Scheduled to begin operation in a few U.S. cities in 1984, the system never gets a dial tone.
ADAM Falls From Grace
The enthusiasm shown by the press for such a cheap, complete computer package has Coleco stock riding on a high, rising 14 points surrounding the ADAM introduction at Summer CES and priced at $65 per share by June of 1983. However, slipping release dates start causing nervous rumbles. An August release turns into September, then October, but as that month progresses there is still no sign of the computer system on shelves. Not only has Coleco’s delays in submitting the printer software to the FCC for approval caused these sliding dates, but also a rash of problems discovered in the system’s design. The built-in SmartWriter word processor is severely lacking in standard editing functions and is painfully slow to move around in. Coleco further incenses potential buyers by stating that a utility pack will be offered later to unlock the advanced functions of the word processor, estimating the price of such an upgrade at around $30. The data drive accesses its cassettes with agonizing slowness when working at all, and the speed of the printer had to be stepped down from 40 CPS to 10, because the innards of the device would fly apart at the higher speed. It is also supremely loud when printing. Further, concerning the printer, probably its most dramatic problem is the enormous magnetic pulse it emits when powering up, erasing any tapes accidentally left in the data drive.
It’s reckoned by industry analysts that every month of delay could be costing Coleco sales of 100,000 units. In late 1983 Coleco finally receives approval from the FCC on the ADAM design. The company frantically begins mass production to meet the 500,000 units promised to retailers before the much-valued Christmas season. Units are air-shipped out to stores near the end of Oct. 1983, with a retail price $100 higher than the previously announced price tag: $699 for the stand-alone and $399 for the ColecoVision add-on package. To add stress to an already stressful launch, in October Coleco is served with three lawsuits, instigated by investors accusing company brass, CEO Arnold Greenberg included, of dumping eight million dollars of their stock at its peak price while publicly promising huge sales for the ADAM system. At the same time of this promotion of the machine, “Coleco had not yet solved serious engineering problems which remained before Adam could be sold as represented. Despite these difficulties, Coleco continued to deny or minimize these troubles publicly and to reaffirm the delivery deadlines”.
Coleco accompanies the ADAM launch with a $15 million television ad campaign, but the company can only manage to get 95,000 ADAMs of their promised 400,000 out the door for the year. Soon after, complaints start pouring in, and ADAMS start piling up at Honeywell service centres, under contract to Coleco to service the system.
The Enormity of the Loss
Nearly 60 percent of all ADAMs sold end up returned to stores as defective. Mass retailer J.C. Penney, for example, decide to get out of home computers altogether after their experience with ADAM; while they had ordered 5000-6000 computer systems from Coleco, after receiving only 500 units they cancel the rest of the order, citing the multiple flunking of ADAM during the retailer’s quality checks. On March 7, 1984, Coleco delivers the bad news: it lost $35 million in its fourth quarter. Upon making the announcement a company spokesman admits that even Coleco brass were surprised by the “enormity of the loss” taken by the ADAM. In the first quarter of 1984, Coleco reports earnings of $4.4 million on net sales of $186.1 million. This is a drop in earnings of over 70 percent from the same period the year before. At the Winter 1984 CES in Vegas, Coleco puts on a brave face and attempts a relaunch of ADAM, assuring show attendees that the numerous bugs in the computer have been dealt with. The problem is that the basic design of the ADAM remains unchanged. The only solution for the problem of tapes being erased when left in the data drive during power-up comes in the included documentation for the computer, with Coleco now adding helpful notices inside the manual and on a label atop the Memory Console, reminding users of this potentially devastating design flaw. A six-month warranty program is also announced to demonstrate faith in the system, along with The ADAM Family Computer Scholarship Program. Qualifying buyers of the ADAM or ColecoVision are eligible, if the system is purchased between September 1 and December 31, 1984. They must have kids enrolling into an accredited U.S. college or university before their 19th birthday and will get $125 from Coleco over four successful academic years, for a total of $500.
Over 100 new hardware and software items are announced at the show. Productivity software such as the SimpleCalc spreadsheet program, SmartFiler database creator and SmartMoney Manager. Previously promised hardware peripherals are also trotted out, like the AdamLink 300-baud modem, the 64K Memory Expander, and an add-on digital data drive that can store 512K of data on two data packs. One jaw-dropping pronouncement is that the ADAM will be getting a module that will allow it to run IBM-PC compatible software, although the only timeline given is “during 1984″ for a release of this golden goose. Coleco also touts that there are 100 of their own software titles in the planning stages or available for the ADAM, and flout a laundry list of powerhouse third-party suppliers for their computer, including Broderbund, EA, Synapse, Epyx, Sierra On-Line and Sirius Software. A new medium is also introduced for the ADAM: a 5 1/4″ floppy drive accepting single-sided, double density disks with a capacity of 160K.
These incentives and peripherals do help pick up sales figures, but not enough to save the system or its reputation. The pipeline of new games for the ColecoVision dries up, with highly anticipated games such as Tunnels & Trolls, announced back at the launch of the console and based on a popular paper-and-dice game in the vein of Dungeons & Dragons, remaining MIA. By the end of 1984, with the home videogame market hemorrhaging badly, the consumer electronics division of Coleco loses over 258 million dollars. Additional promotions are rolled out to try and increase interest in the ADAM: the retail price is steadily slashed down to $475, the inclusion of one of Coleco’s hot-selling Cabbage Patch Kid doll with every purchase of a ColecoVision and game cartridge, and the giveaway of 32 BASIC programs on four Data Packs. Despite these incentives, the computers stubbornly remain on store shelves and ColecoVision console inventory piles up. Despite vehement denials by Coleco issued previously, a few days before the January 1985 CES the company announces that, due to the “unusually volatile business environment” of home computers, the ADAM line has been discontinued by the company. Anyone needing a reason for the abandonment of the ADAM need only look to a fourth-quarter loss of somewhere between $64 – $80 million for Coleco. All remaining inventory is sold off to the familiar dead-tech vultures at NYC-based Odd Lot Trading, Inc., while Coleco stock tanks at $13 dollars a share. The ADAMs are expected to be unloaded to buyers for somewhere south of $300. While the ColecoVision game console is not initially included in the ADAM announcement, it eventually succumbs to the evaporating video game market later in the year.
The Cabbage Patch Kid craze comes and goes, and Coleco fails to catch lightning in a bottle with the Couch Potato doll, an equally ugly, spud-shaped plushie advertised as “the complete vegetable”, that refuses to move off toy store shelves in 1987. Their nine lives finally exhausted, Coleco defaults on interest payments to its debt holders in 1988. With its share price approaching penny status at around $2.50, Coleco announces the layoff of 475 employees and the departure of its chairman. In July of the year, the company files for bankruptcy. Most of Coleco’s assets, licenses and rights wind up purchased by Hasbro in 1989, but at the time of the bankruptcy a company called Telegames almost immediately buys up the rights to the ColecoVision and remaining stock and starts selling the machines through mail-order, as well as working to finish games that were left hanging when Coleco went under. They begin selling the $40 Personal Arcade aka Dina through mail-order, a redesigned system using the ColecoVision hardware. The machine is small, featuring low-rent versions of Nintendo’s NES controllers. The original’s membrane keypads have been reduced in number to one, mounted on the cabinet and incompatible with game overlays. Space shooter Meteoric Shower is included as a built-in game for the system. Another interesting aspect of the machine is a second cartridge port, right behind the ColecoVision slot. This extra slot accepts Sega SG-1000 cartridges, a Japanese precursor to the Sega Master System. The Ultimate Critic eventually weighs in with His review of the Dina, when a tornado wipes out all remaining Personal Arcade stock in 1994. The Coleco brand itself eventually resurfaces in 2005 via a Chicago-based company, releasing new lines of handheld games and virtual TV plug-and-play devices.
With over six million ColecoVision units sold in the space of just two years and approximately 190 cartridges released in total, it makes you wonder whether Coleco could have established itself as an enduring force in the video game market if the big crash, coming just one year after the ColecoVision’s introduction, hadn’t cut the legs out from under their system.
Sources (Click to view; inert links are kept for historical purposes)
Doctor, Game. Editorial. Q&A June 1983: 114. Electronic Games – Volume 01 Number 16 (1983-06)(Reese Communications)(US). Internet Archive. Web. 08 Feb. 2016. Using a full-time artist and musician to create audio-graphics, their programmers worked in the PASCAL computer language. PASCAL is famous as a quick-writing programming language, and allowed the company to get almost a dozen gaming titles into the stores by Christmas time.Softline, “Insomnia, Speaking of Which”, pgs. 46-47, Jan 1983. “We regard the Coleco adapter as merely a thinly disguised copy of Atari’s VCS unit…” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Softline collection, Oct 30 2015.
New York Times, “Coleco Loses $35 Million in Quarter” by David E. Sanger, March 8 1984. “Coleco Industries announced yesterday that it lost $35 million in the fourth quarter…” “A company spokesman said the ‘enormity of the loss’ on the Adam home computer surprised even Coleco’s top officials.” Retrieved from nytimes.com, Sep 19 2015.
Doctor, Game. “Q&A: The Doc Examines the ADAM.” Electronic Games July 1984: 86. Electronic Games – Volume 02 Number 13 (1984-07)(Reese Communications)(US). Internet Archive. Web. 09 Feb. 2016. ADAM prototype product shotTrinity College website, “Leonard E. Greenberg”, 2000. “…he decided to apply to Trinity College, where Dean Thurman Hood admitted him on a provisional basis. In just two-and-a-half-years, Mr. Greenberg earned his Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics…” “After graduation in 1948, Mr. Greenberg joined the family business, the Connecticut Leather Company, which remade itself into Coleco Industries in 1961.” Retrieved from the Trinity College website, Sep 18 2015.
1983 ColecoVision magazine ad, “The Best Game in Town Just Got Better”. “And [the Super Game Module] comes with two bonus Super Games: Buck Rogers Planet of Zoom and Gorf.”.
Electronic Fun With Computers and Games, “They’re Almost Here” by Michael Blanchet and Randi Hacker, pgs. 25-33, 91. “The Super Game, scheduled to appear in the stores around July, will cost about $125.”. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, EFWCG collection, Sep 9, 2015.
The New York Times, “The 10 Super Stocks of 1982″ by Fred R. Bleakley, Jan 2, 1983. “Coleco’s giant jump in sales last year to some $500 million from $176 million in 1981…”. Retrieved from the NYT archive, Sep 8, 2015.
ADAM Set-Up Manual, Coleco 1983-1984. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Sept 7, 2015
Electronic Games, “EG Videogame Preview ’83″ by the Editors of Electronic Games, pgs. 22-32, May 1983. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
OSHRC Docket No. 84-0546, “Secretary of Labor v. Coleco Industries, Inc.”, October 20, 1986, David J. Knight, Judge, Boston, Massachusetts
ColecoVision Zone, ColecoVision Experience magazine archive - www.colecovisionzone.com/page/collectible/magazine.html
ADAM SmartWriter. Program documentation. DP Library – Manuals. Digital Press, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2016. Image of Easy Reference Guide Video Games, “Briefs: Atari v. Coleco & Imagic; This Means War!”, by Steve Bloom, pg 80, Vol. 1 Num. 6, Mar 1983
Radio-Electronics, “Looking Ahead – Fun and games”, by David Lachenbruch, pg. 4, May 1980
Image of the Super Game Pack being held, and other information from ColecoVision Experience, “Super Game Packs”, by Timothy Bay, pgs. 18 – 19, Summer 1983
“Reader Replay: Still Searching.” Electronic Games Dec. 1984: 20. Electronic Games – Volume 02 Number 17 (1984-12)(Reese Communications)(US). Internet Archive. Web. 09 Feb. 2016. As of this writing, Tunnels & Trolls is still not out, despite its having been announced about two years ago. Images of Coleco’s former plant complex in Amsterdam, NY taken from Google Maps, Street View, 2007 archive
1983 ColecoVision ad featuring the Super Game Module from Electronic Games, pgs. 58-59, May 1983. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
Archival photograph of Coleco building #7, Amsterdam, NY as carpet factory, late 1920′s, from UER, user Dotsebell
Computerworld, “Trade show demos served up fast; queasy feeling lingers”, by Paul Korzenowski, pgs. 81, 93, Jul 16 1984
ASCII by Jason Scott – digitize.textfiles.com/items/1980-coleco-catalog
UNotes Daily – www.hartford.edu/daily/news.asp?id=778
ColecoVision Experience, “John Dykstra: Wizard at Work”, by Timothy Bay, pgs. 14 – 16, Fall 1983
Electronic Games, “Electronic Games Hotline – New Names At Atari”, pg. 14, Nov 1983
Billboard, “News: Coleco Cuts Adam’s Price; Last Gasp?” by Fay Zuckerman, pg. 90, Nov 3 1984. “Coleco Industries has dropped the price on its ailing Adam home computer system to $475 from $650…” “Since its inception, Adam has been plagued by mishaps – a defective rate nearing 60%, massive returns and overly optimistic market projections.” Retrieved from Google Books, Sep 21 2015.
The Computer Closet Collection | ColecoVision – www.computercloset.org/Colecovision.htm
Retromags – www.retromags.com
InfoWorld, “News, Adam to get disk drive, IBM PC-compatibility module” by Scott Mace, pg. 14, Feb 6 1984. “Executive vice-president of marketing Alfred Kahn said Coleco will sell a plug-in module during 1984 to make the Adam compatible with IBM PC software. Kahn declined to elaborate on the announcement.” “Coleco said it now has 100 of its own software programs planned or ready for the Adam…” “Coleco will sell a number of “best of” software packages, each containing several game from a leading independent software producer, such as Broderbund Software, Electronic Arts, Synapse Software, Sierra On-Line and Sirius Software. Other third-party software announced for the Adam will come from Spinnaker Software, Epyx, Datamost, Tronix and HES, Kahn said.” Retrieved from Google Books, Nov 2 2015.
Image of the ColecoVision prototype #1 from Electronic Games, pg. 20, Jan 1983
JoyStik, “Future Waves – Coleco’s ‘Super’ New Module”, pg. 7, Vol. 1 Num. 6, Jul 1983
ColecoVision.dk | ColecoVision SGM Super Game Module. – www.colecovision.dk/sgm.htm
Pictures of King Kong | Drawings and paintings of King Kong – www.logoi.com/pastimages/king_kong.html
Ahl, David H. “Industry Insider.” Creative Computing Apr. 1985: 6. Creative Computing Magazine (April 1985) Volume 11 Number 04. Internet Archive. Web. 06 Mar. 2016. Coleco posted a forth quarter loss estimated to be between $65 and $80 million which it largely blames on the ill-fated Adam. The Odd Lot subsidiary of Revco reportedly bought Coleco’s inventory of Adams; expected street price is below $300.
JoyStik, “Technocracy – Business and Pleasure”, Vol. 2 Num 2, Nov 1983
“Hotline: Hardware Beat.” Electronic Games Dec. 1984: 9. Electronic Games – Volume 02 Number 17 (1984-12)(Reese Communications)(US). Internet Archive. Web. 09 Feb. 2016. Coleco’s disk drive for the Adam takes single-sided, double-density 51/4″ floppy disks that can handle up to 160K bytes…; Image of ADAM floppy driveElectronic Fun With Computers and Games, “Atari, Mattel, Coleco…”, pgs. 33-38, 97, Sep 1983. “…the addition of a Super Game Module (which at presstime, had been discontinued due to problems in the mass manufacture of the wafer drive).” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, EFWCG collection, Sep 9, 2015.
Ahoy!, “Can the 64 Crack the Peanut?” by Steve Springer, pgs. 39-41, 90, Jan 1984
Atari Age, “Atari Reorganizes, Greets New CEO”, pg. 13, Vol. 2 Num. 3, Sept/Oct 1983
Dina 2 in one – SegaRetro – www.segaretro.org/Dina_2_in_one
ColecoBoxArt.com – www.colecoboxart.com
“Coleco: Climbing Towards Video Supremecy.” Videogaming Illustrated Aug. 1982: 19-23+. Coleco Box Art. Web. 16 Dec. 2016. The wallet-making and key case stitching kits designed by the younger Greenberg did so well that licenses were quickly obtained for Mickey Mouse Moccasin kits, Howdy Dooky Bee-Nee kits, and the like. Coleco grew steadily until 1956, when Leonard bought a small vacuum forming machine… but when Coleco turned to plastic…pools…sleds, and toboggans, the company’s fortunes skyrocketed. Arnold Greenbert joined the family business in 1966, leaving a successful law practice…the corporation went public in 1971. Five years later, Coleco entered the video filed with Telstar, a Pong game which sold nearly one million units that year. In January Coleco was forced to pull all their Pac-Man television from the New York area because, even with 100,000 games rolling off the production line – a figure which has more than doubled since then – they couldn’t fill orders fast enough. …Coleco committed $1.5 million into the starting of a videogame division.
Computerworld, “Computer Industry: Nickels and Dimes”, pg. 132, May 14 1984
“Hotline: Donkey Kong Whips King Kong.” Electronic Games July 1984: 10. Electronic Games – Volume 02 Number 13 (1984-07)(Reese Communications)(US). Internet Archvie. Web. 09 Feb. 2016. Judge D.J. Sweet pointed to the differences between the comical Donkey Kong and sinister King Kong, saying that the game creates “a totally difference concept and feel from the drama”. He says that “No reasonable jury could find likelihood of confusion”… ColecoVision Experience, “Turbo! Road-Racing Action On Your TV Screen”, pgs. 9-10, Issue #1 Spring 1983
Image of original Kid Vid voice module prototype for the Gemini from Phoenix Video Game Classics, “Coleco Kid Vid Voice Module”, by Sly DC/Sylvain D.C. - www.ccjvq.com/slydc/kidvid/kidvid.htm
Electronic Games, “Switch-On: Cooler Heads Prevail” by Arnie Katz, pg. 6, Aug 1983. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games collection
New York Times, “Atari and Coleco”, Feb 8, 1983
Images of the Super Action Controller Set box, VCS/2600 Cartridge Adapter, “Try ColecoVision” button, ADAM box, ADAM Memory Module, ADAM keyboard, Roller Controller box and Gemini console taken at the Videogame History Museum display, CGE 2014 in Las Vegas
ColecoVision Experience, “Feedback – Videogame Lifespans”, pg. 13, Issue #1 Spring 1983
BLiP: The Video Game Magazine, May 1983, “Looking to the Future” Pg. 20-21
New York Times, “Coleco Strong in Marketing”, by Kirk Johnson, Aug 1 1983, referenced Oct 8 2014
Nintendo Life, Feature: How ColecoVision Became the King of Kong, by Damien McFarran (reprint of Retro Gamer article), Sept 18 2010 – www.nintendolife.com/news/2010/09/feature_how_colecovision_became_the_king_of_kong
New York Times, “Coleco Gives Up On The Adam”, Jan 3, 1985
Videogaming Illustrated, “Atari vs. Coleco” by Stephen Bent, pgs. 11-13, Jul 1983. “According to Atari, Coleco’s expansion module, which permits ColecoVision users to play game cartridges made for the Atari VCS system, is nothing more or less than a copy of Atari’s VCS unit.” “Expansion Module #1 and the Gemini unit racked the descriptions for making and using inventions contained in two U.S. patents issued in 1978 and 1982, respectively, to Steven Mayer and Ronald Milner…” “Atari also alleged violations by Coleco of both federal and Illinois state law in the deceptive use of certain Atari circuitry and trademarks…” “Atari asserted that Coleco had effectively misused Atari Trademarks like Asteroids and Pac-Man by giving them “undue prominence” in Coleco’s television commercials…” “…Atari’s nefarious schemes to (in Coleco’s words) ‘monopolize trade and commerce in the programmable home video game market’…” Coleco contended that the basic Atari patent describing the logic circuitry for generating manually controllable TV game graphics was, in essence, placed on sale more than a year prior to Atari’s filing for the patent (a legal no-no)…” “Atari, Coleco claimed, had taken illegal retaliatory measures against companies (Activision and Coleco were particularly identified) seeking to ‘introduce or expand the concept of interchangeability into the programmable home video game market’…” “…threats by Atari to terminate or reduce services to distributors and large retailers carrying competing products…” “Atari and Coleco filed a proposed settlement of all issues between them with the district court on March twenty-first and the case was formally terminated four days later.” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Videogaming Illustrated collection, Sep 17 2015.
Fortune Magazine, “Coleco’s Comedown”, Feb 4, 1985
Expandable Computer News, “West Hartford Happenings” by Darrell R. Sage, pgs. 4-5, March/April 1984. “This module [SGM] contained expansion memory for the Colecovision game unit and a high speed drive which at that point consisted of the Exatron stringy floppy.” “The company, Exatron, had been marketing its devices for the Commodore Vic-20 and other compute systems” “Because of the problems that were developing with the stringy floppy, Coleco began to seek other solutions for its data storage device.” “At the 1984 Winter Consumer Electronics Show, Coleco officials indicated that the company was only able to produce 95,000 Adams in 1983″ Reproduction of newsletter retrieved from sacnews.net, Sep 21 2015.
ColecoVision Experience, “ColecoVision News – ‘ColecoVision Introduces Expansion Module #3 to Play Super Game Wafers’”, Issue #1, Spring 1983
Videogaming and Computergaming Illustrated,
Starlog, “Log Entries”, pg. 13, April 13 1983
Arcade Express, “John Dykstra Joins Coleco Design Team”, pg. 4, Vol. 1 Num. 15, Feb 27 1983
Electronic Fun With Computers and Games, “Game Workout: One Million A.C. *After ColecoVision” by William Michael Brown, pgs. 39-43, 94, June 1983. “First shown to us at the New York Toy Fair in February…”. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, EFWCG collection, Sept 9, 2015.
New York Times (AP), “Coleco’s Net in Sharp Rise”, Oct 19, 1985
Image of Arnold Greenberg with the ColecoVision console, and other information from Video Games, “Coleco Has a Vision – Better Games for All”, by Steve Bloom, photo by Lanny Nagler, pgs. 52 – 55, 76 – 77, 80, Vol. 1 Num. 2, Oct 1982
Anderson, John. “Creative Computing Magazine (September 1983) Volume 09 Number 09.” Creative Computing Magazine (September 1983) Volume 09 Number 09. Internet Archive, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2016. They were jammed into the 1000 square foot or so of the Coleco booth at McCormick West to get a look at the new creation.;There before me, rotating slowly in a tinted glass case…was Adam. Museum of Computing Magazine, Dave Johnson Interview, Spring/Summer 2006, pg. 13 – 17
Compute!, “Coleco’s Adam: A Hands-On Report” by Selby Bateman and Tom R. Halfhill, pgs. 54 – 59, Mar 1984
Image of Tunnels & Trolls from Electronic Games, “ColecoVision VS Atari 5200″, pg. 30, Mar 1984. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
Videogames: In the Beginning, by Ralph H. Baer, pgs. 146 – 148, Rolenta Press 2005
Garry Kitchen’s homepage – www.garrykitchen.com
Video gaming Illustrated, “Coleco: Climbing toward video supremacy”, 1982 New York Times, “Coleco Denies Soaring Debt”, Nov 1983
Expandable Computer News, “West Hartford Happenings: June CES-Chicago” by D. Sage, pgs. 3-5, July/Aug 1984. “Coleco has announced that persons buying ADAMs between May 8, 1984 and September 15, 1984 will be eligible to receive a package of 32 Basic programs for the ADAM.” “Coleco is also going to be giving away Cabbage Patch dolls to purchasers of the ColecoVision Video Game System.” Reproduction of article retrieved from sacnews.net, Sep 21 2015.
Hunter, David. “Newspeak.” Softalk Apr. 1984: 191-96. Softalk V4n08 Apr 1984. Internet Archive. Web. 27 Feb. 2016. Update: Coleco recently admitted to manufacturing only 95,000 Adam home computers in 1983. Last year, the company said it would ship at least 400,000 Adams before the new year. In December, J.C. Penny announced that the Adam did not meet the retailer’s “quality standards” and decided to cancel catalog orders for the machines… Videogaming and Computergaming Illustrated, “Behind the Scenes, Atari vs. Coleco”, by Stephen Bent, pgs. 11 – 13, Jul 1983
Image of ADAM systems in the 1984 Montgomery Ward catalog from “1984-xx-xx Montgomery Ward Christmas Catalog P521″ Flickr page, by Wishbook. Retrieved from Flickr, Sep 21 2015.
Electronic Games, “A Decade of Programmable Video Games”, pgs. 20 – 23, Mar 1982
Image of Super Game version of’Buck Rogers Planet of Zoom’ packaging with ‘Super Smurf Resue in Gargamel’s Castle’ wafer tape from ‘Electronic Fun with Computers & Games, Game Workout: One Million A.C.* *After ColecoVision’, June 1983, pgs. 40-43, 94
ColecoVision Experience, “Feedback – ‘ColecoVision’s Computer’”, pg. 13, Issue #1 Spring 1983
New York magazine, “The Bottom Line: Stalking the Walking Wounded” by John Crudele, pgs. 16-19, May 16 1988
Infoworld, “News Briefs, J.C. Penney cancels Coleco Adam, bows out of home computer biz”, pg. 27, Jan 23 1984. “J.C. Penney has cancelled scheduled deliveries of Coleco’s Adam home-computer system and has announced it will discontinue selling home computers as of February 1. After receiving an initial shipment of 500 Adams, Penney reportedly decided to stop further deliveries because the computers it received ‘repeatedly’ flukes quality tests.. The department-store chain had placed an order for somewhere between 5000 to 6000 Adam systems.” Retrieved from Google Books, Nov 2 2015.
New York Times, “Advertising; At Coleco, The Adam is Reborn”, Aug 1984
Infoworld, “News: For Kids, IBM Changes Stripes” by Kathy Chin, pgs. 19-20, Dec 31 1984. “Industry analysts have been predicting that Coleco plans to leave the home computer business by dropping its Adam system after the Christmas season – a charge Coleco has repeatedly denied.” Retrieved from Google Books, Sep 21 2015.
Compute!, “Software Power!: The Summer Consumer Electronics Show” by Selby Bateman, pgs. 32-41, Aug 1984
Video Games, “Double Speak – Coleco Woes”, pg. 7, Vol. 1 Num. 5, Feb 1983
UPI, “Coleco Industries and American Telephone and Telegraph Corp. have…”, Sep 8, 1983. “The latest venture by Coleco was announced a day after the firm introduced its new Adam home computer in time for the Christmas shopping season.” Retrieved from the UPI archives, Nov 2 2015.
Ahl, David H. “1983 Summer Consumer Electronics Show.” Creative Computing Sept. 1983: 200-22. Creative Computing Magazine (September 1983) Volume 09 Number 09. Internet Archive. Web. 25 Feb. 2016. Apparently just a few days before the show, it was decided to replace wafertape drives with some sort of cassette termed by Coleco a “digital data pack drive”Softline, “Mart Bell Gets a Cabbage Patch Kid”, by Roe Adams, pg. 50, Mar/Apr 1984. “American Telephone and Telegraph…recently announced a joint venture between its AT&T Consumer Products division and Coleco Industries of Hartford, Connecticut. The new venture will provide interactive games and other forms of entertainment over existing phone lines. To facilitate computer owners’ use of this new service, low-cost (under $100) modems will be sold to subscribers.” “All the games will be for two players. A player in New York inserts a special cartridge of disk into his or her game machine or computer. The player can then call a 900 number (flat rate charge) and enter his/her name via joystick selection. The telephone’s computer will connect the player with another aspiring player on-line somewhere else in the United States. The two player fight it out for the top score, and the scores will be recorded.. Some type of nationwide competition may evolve from this, although that has not been formally announced.” Retrieved from Google Books, Nov 2 2015.
Electronic Games, “Q&A”, pg. 113, Jul 1983
1982 image of kids playing the ColecoVision kiosk courtesy of BooQC Publishing
Images of the Connecticut Leather Company storefront, Leonard and Arnold Greenberg sitting together as well as other information from Videogaming and Computergaming Illustrated, “Adam Bomb?” by the VCI editors, pgs. 19-21, 71. “…Coleco executives admitted that a ‘utility pack’ would be needed to make Adam’s word processor function perfectly, professionally. That utility pack with cost an additional thirty dollars or so…” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Videogaming Illustrated collection, Sep 18 2015.
“Hotline: ADAM Drops Out.” Electronic Games Apr. 1985: 18. Electronic Games – Volume 03 Number 04 (1985-04)(Reese Communications)(US). Internet Archive. Web. 10 Feb. 2016. …questions were finally answered just days before the start of January’s Consumer Electronics Show (CES), when Coleco announced that it was selling off all Adam inventory to an unnamed retailer.Ross, Steven S. “Coleco ADAM: Everything You Need and More.” MicroKids Dec. 1983: 76-79. MicroKids – Issue 01 Volume 01 No 01 (1983-12)(Microkids Publishing)(US). Internet Archive. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. Image of Expansion Pack #3 prototype; The Coleco printer is a bit slower than more expensive units; it has a printing speed of only 10 characters per second.; The printer is available, however, in only one type size – 10 pitch… It should be noted, though, that you’ll have to buy an optional circuit board to print out a full 80-character line. Otherwise you’re stuck with 36 characters.; Conventional friction feed – like the feed on a normal typewriter – is standard, but Coleco promises an optional tractor feed soon. Price: about $150.; …the Coleco cartridge can transfer data into and out of the computer at a speed of about 1500 characters per second. That’s 20 times faster than a conventional tape drive…Computer Games (ne: Video Games Player), “The Hotline”, Feb 1985. “Coleco’s Adam computer seems to have recovered from its early problems and is starting to sell briskly, especially now that they are offering a $500 college scholarship to anyone that buys one.” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Video Games Player collection, Sep 13, 2015.
Uston, Ken. “Reflections on CES.” Creative Computng Sept. 1983: 224-31. Creative Computing Magazine (September 1983) Volume 09 Number 09. Internet Archive. Web. 25 Feb. 2016. On the Friday preceding the show, Coleco’s stock rose five points in anticipation of the introduction of Adam. On the following Monday, the first trading day during which CES was open, Coleco’s stock went up another nine points.
Gray, Stephen B. “Coleco’s Adam.” Creative Computing Apr. 1984: 45-54. Creative Computing Magazine (April 1984) Volume 10 Number 04. Internet Archive. Web. 04 Mar. 2016. It [SmartBasic manual] informs the reader that, among other things, “This manual has been adapted from a book by a computer wizard named Russ Walter. His book, The Secret Guide to Computers…”; The last paragraph of the Forward says, “Or, if our line is busy, you can reach Russ Walter at (617) 266-8128 if you have programming questions.”;Walter, who has been described in print as Boston’s… computer guru…; Coleco began shipping the Adam on or about October 18, 1983.; Walter says he discovered Coleco had been removing the Forward from the SmartBasic manual. He threatened to sue, because his contract calls for his Secret Guide to be mentioned in the manual. Coleco later offered, he said, to settle out of court, by paying him for $20,000 for not saying anything derogatory about Adam anymore and for leaving his name out of the manual.; She [Barbara Wruck, director of corporate communications at Coleco] said that the manual has been rewritten and mention of Walter’s book dropped because “we found that the book (the original manual) was inadequate and not appropriate.”
New York Times Article on Coleco/July 1985 – www.nytimes.com/1985/07/21/business/coleco-moves-out-of-the-cabbage-patch.html