Odyssey², a home video game system by Magnavox 1978

Odyssey² and controllers

Odyssey² - The Keyboard Is the Key

Magnavox 1978

Continuing Odyssey

Even though they pioneered home videogame consoles with the original Odyssey, Magnavox, a subsidiary of Dutch high-tech conglomerate Philips as of 1974, has to play some serious catch-up after the advent of programmable systems like the Channel F and VCS. Their answer is a redesign of a machine originally prototyped by the company in 1977, featuring 24 built-in games. Called the Odyssey² (O²), the system is re-tooled as a programmable machine and debuts for $199.95 in 1978. Seven game carts are available at launch, selling for $19.95. Also available is Computer Intro, which teaches users the basics of assembler and machine language programming for the low, low price of $24.95.

Inside the O² is an Intel 4-bit 8048 CPU, running at 1.78 MHz. It is touted as The Ultimate Video Game System, mainly on the strength of its innovative, but ultimately under-utilized, 49 key alpha-numeric membrane keyboard. This selling point forces Atari to eventually release membrane keypad add-ons for their VCS. The O² falls short in other, more important categories; it has lower resolution graphics than the Atari VCS and only one audio channel, compared to its rival’s two. Another problem are the joysticks hardwired right into the machine, so that when the sticks wear out or break (which they often did), there is no choice but to take the whole contraption back to the dealer. This is later fixed in a remodelled O² with external joystick ports. The marketing strategy for the unit also leaves something to be desired. Unable or unwilling to heed lessons learned from the sales problems of their first Odyssey, distribution of the O² is again initially limited to authorized Magnavox dealers, severely limiting its sales potential.  The system has fairly better luck in Europe, where Philips markets it as the Videopac G7000. In fact, two other Videopac models are produced for the European market, the G7200 featuring a built-in monitor, and the G7400 which is the equivalent of the mysterious Odyssey 3 (see below).


Designing Couple

Magnavox hardware engineer Sam Overton creates most of the initial game titles for the O², including passes at most of the staple sports games like football, basketball and golf. However, North American Philips (NAP) decides that video games aren’t such a great way to sell television sets, and six months after the launch of the Odyssey² pulls the plug on the Game Group in an overture to pulling the machine off the market completely. Ed Averett is an electrical engineer and sales representative at Intel, supplier of chips for the Odyssey². When he hears that the system might be cancelled, he convinces his employer that keeping the O² afloat will also keep open an avenue to sell Intel chips. Thus, Averett starts making games for the console from his home in Chattanooga, Tennessee as a freelance developer, along with his wife Linda, also an electrical engineer. They create about half of the 50 games eventually produced by Magnavox, receiving a royalty for each cartridge sold in lieu of a salary. The Averetts face some extremely limiting technical confines developing for the O², such as a measly 2K of ROM available in each cartridge. The “Challenger Series” line of games bumps this up with 4K carts, but they still fill up fast.  With Ed designing the games while his wife programs, they crank out each game in about three months, amounting to some of the most creative home video games of the era. One of the Averetts’ creations becomes the crux on which the O² rises, and then ultimately drops into oblivion.


Atari Is Not Amused

K.C. Munchkin! is created to capitalize on the immense success of arcade wunderkind Pac-Man, with the title of the game being a clever take on the name of NAP’s head of the Consumer Electronics Division, Kenneth Charles Meinken, Jr.. As Ed Averett is completing the game, Mike Staup, head of home game development at NAP, investigates the possibility of obtaining a home video game licence of Pac-Man for the . Finding the rights unavailable, NAP feels that the gameplay is safely different from Pac-Man to avoid a lawsuit as its own game, although it does tell Averett to change some aspects to further distance the game from the arcade hit, such as changing the colour of the main character from yellow to blue. The company also forbids any reference to Pac-Man in marketing materials. NAP releases K.C. Munchkin in 1981, and it rapidly becomes the O²’s killer game, causing people to buy the system just to play the game. It features such enhancements to the Pac-Man formula as moving pellets and a rotating monster cage. Midway, owning the Pac-Man arcade rights, and Atari, owning the home video game rights to Pac-Man and releasing its inferior version that same year, are not amused. The resulting flurry of litigation is enough to have people following the case snapping their necks back and forth as if watching a particularly intense rally in PONG. In November of 1981 Atari and Midway sue Magnavox and NAP over copyright infringement and unfair competition via the Illinois Uniform Deceptive Trade Practices Act, seeking an injunction to prevent the sale of K.C. Munchkin over the crucial Christmas season. While not successful at that time, a judge eventually agrees that the graphic elements of Munchkin are close enough to infringe on Atari’s licence, and sales of Averett’s game are halted. An appeal by NAP to a Chicago district court then allows a temporary stay on this decision, and sales of Munchkin resume. Finally, this stay is challenged by Atari and Midway and overturned in 1982 in a Chicago federal appeals court which focuses on the visual simularities between the two games, as opposed to the overall gameplay. The court rules that while the games are not entirely identical,  “K.C. Munchkin captures the ‘total concept and feel’ of and is substantially similar to PAC-MAN.” It also doesn’t help that the Plaintiffs produce plenty of examples of retailer newspaper ads and store sales staff referring to K.C. Munchkin as “like Pac-Man” and “Odyssey’s Pac-Man”. Of course, NAP has no control over this type of independent promotion, but it still goes a way to show damage for the plaintiffs. NAP attempts to take the matter up with the U.S. Supreme Court, who refuse to hear the case. With an injunction in place, NAP can sell remaining stock in stores, but must notify dealers that no further orders can be made for their best-selling game, and the O² never really recovers from the loss. As for which version is better, it’s certainly debatable. On a basic level, for a game dedicated to eating things, Pac-Man has an entire maze full of dots to munch on, so it’s arguably more satisfying. Then again, K.C.’s quarry personifies “fast food”. 

Averett strikes back in October 1982 with the utterly amazing K.C.’s Krazy Chase!, with our intrepid K.C. rolling through a forested maze trying to eat the tail of a creature called a “Dratapillar”…a thinly disguised poke at Atari. Smaller legged creatures called “Drats” also chase the titular character around. While being a debut action game for The Voice speech attachment (see below), and easily one of the most graphically complex and enjoyable games of the pre-1980 home videogames, it comes too late to save the O².

This is The Voice

Magnavox is quick out of the gate with The Voice speech-synthesizer in 1982, a large $100 add-on that fits over the top panel and cartridge slot of the O2, with its own slot to accept game carts. Containing a General Instruments speech chip, It holds a vocabulary of over 100 word spoken with a male voice, along with various sound effects and musical cues.  Audio is produced through its own speaker and volume control, so users can adjust the loudness of voices independently of the game audio emitting from the TV. Outside of the canned expressions contained in The Voice, additional words can be formed by the device through the use of vocal sounds pieced together to produce human speech, although such assembled speech sounds much more mechanical.


Reaching for the Rings

The Odyssey² is named Official Video Game of the 1982 World’s Fair. No doubt this choice is facilitated by the fact that the 1982 World’s Fair is held in Knoxville, Tennessee… which also serves as the HQ for Magnavox. Fifteen Odyssey² displays, complete with Magnavox TV, console and a selection of around six games each, can be found at the America’s Electrical Energy exhibit. Events include the Pick Axe Pete Pick-Off tournament, which results in one pound of gold (then worth around $6,000, as of this writing currently $16,372) awarded to contest winner 10-year old Tony Scardigno, hailing from Weehawken, NJ..

Neither this hoopla, nor The Voice, nor the Computer Intro cartridge (a program designed to teach assembler and machine language) help to jump-start the Odyssey²’s dwindling market share. The Master Strategy series of games are a grand hope of redemption for the console, produced by Stephen Lehner and Ronald Bradford of Wilmette, Illinois. Operating a design firm called Lehner Bradford and Cout, they are pretty familiar with Magnavox video game systems; they had done graphic design work for the original Odyssey, including advertising material, all of the game box art, and even the infamous mylar TV screen overlays. The firm had also designed the “vanishing point” O2 logo and did nearly all of the package graphics work for the newer system. Programming for the Master series is done by the prolific Ed and Linda Averett. It is the opinion of Lehner and Bradford that Magnavox is underutilizing the key feature of the O2 that separates it from the competition, its keyboard. Little has been done with the keyboard innovation, aside from input in some educational games and the video game console first of being able to input your name with a high score, introduced in 1981′s UFO!. The Master Strategy games aim to correct that oversight.

A 1981 ad spread for The Quest for the Rings, a video game for the Odyssey 2

4-page ad for The Quest for the Rings, Electronic Games 1981


J.R.R. Tolkien’s fantasy Lord of the Rings books inspire the first entry, titled The Quest for the Rings. It goes on to win a 1982 Arcade Award for Most Innovative Game from Electronic Games, the premiere videogame magazine of the time. The other titles available in the game series are military strategy game Conquest of the World, and high-stakes financial simulation The Great Wall Street Fortune Hunt. Appearing between 1981 and 1982, each of the three games have extended memory, complex packaging and include plastic and metal game pieces used on a highly detailed game board packed with the game which players use as a supplement to the onscreen action. A lot of interaction with the keyboard is also required. A fourth Master Strategy game, called The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, is planned but never completed. The popularity of the Master Strategy series is enough to entice Magnavox to commission a full-colour magazine dedicated to the console and its games. Odyssey Adventure is a quarterly magazine that runs from Winter 1982 to Winter 1983.


A New Path

By mid-1982 the Odyssey² no longer falls under the Magnavox brand, having been given its own division under NAP. This move is a bid to expand distribution of the console outside of authorized Magnavox dealers, including a deal with Sears to stock the console and its games on their shelves. A new in-house development team titled the Game Group, headed by original O² game programmer Sam Overton, has also been set up to provide new games for the O². Through 1982 and into 1983, the system also starts getting some third-party software support, with two cartridges by game maker Imagic and four arcade translations from Parker Brothers. The next generation Odyssey 3 is previewed at the 1983 January CES, with 16K of RAM, Z80B CPU, a chiclet-style keyboard, new voice-synthesizer and optional 300 baud modem, along with a later announced laserdisc module to play games such as arcade sensation Dragon’s Lair. The new system has a hefty display resolution at 320×210 pixels, even better than Mattel’s planned next-gen console powerhouse Intellivision III. The O3 is subsequently re-tooled as the Odyssey Command Center, with an expected release in the 3rd quarter of 1983 and a listed price of $199. The most far-reaching aspect of the Command Center is probably the expansion port at the back of the device, which allows for a range of plug-ins for added features, such as voice synthesis, modem and computer programming modules.

By the time of the CES reveal, the Averetts have stepped off the video game merry-go-round, so a software development team for Command Center games led by Sam Overton is set up in the hills of Tennessee called The Odyssey Software Development Group, or Odyssey West. Larger games with advanced graphics are developed, such as an adaptation of Stern Electronics’ arcade game Turtles, by Jim Butler. The Command Center is fully backwards compatible with O2 games, although things get a tad complicated in this regard. Popular titles for the O2 are to be enhanced with colourful and detailed backgrounds for the newer unit, although the main forefront gameplay elements would still appear the same as the original game. These new enhanced versions can be played on the original O2 as well, although the backgrounds would revert back to as before, such as the black limbo of Pick Axe Pete. NAP announces that around twelve games will be available exclusively for the Command Center and which will take full advantage of its advanced capabilities. These include even more deluxe versions of the Master Strategy Series games. Turtles and Killer Bees, by Bob Harris, do make it to market for the O2. The Odyssey Command Center, however, is eventually canned by NAP towards the end of 1983, afraid that the console would be obsolete by the time it was released.  It does see some limited release in Europe, as the Phillips G7400.

The Odyssey Ends

With about one million units sold by 1983, the Odyssey² does beat out every other fringe system like the Channel F, Vectrex and the Bally Professional Arcade, but it only wins five percent of the home video game market, compared to the commanding eighty percent held by the Atari 2600. Talk of a new laser disc game system, marrying the  with Magnavox’s Laservision videodisc technology comes to naught, and work on a fourth Master Strategy game, announced in 1982 and called Sherlock Holmes, is begun by Lehner and Bradford but is not to be. In a strong signal that NAP has lost hope for a revival of their console, the company announces plans in 1982 to publish games for competing systems, under the Probe 2000 label. Titles such as The Adventure of Pink Panther and Power Lords are queued up, but only War Room for ColecoVision ends up getting released; NAP claims a chronic microchip shortage has put a kibosh on the whole endeavour. When the videogame market crashes in 1983 – 84, so does Probe 2000 and the O² itself. The old war horse reaches the end of the road in March of 1984 when NAP announces the dissolution of the Odyssey division. logo_stop


Sources (Click to view; inert links are kept for historical purposes)

Videogaming Illustrated, “Eye On: The First Home Videogame Sequel!”, pg. 60, Oct 1982. “In October, Odyssey will release K.C.’s Krazy Chase…” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Videogaming Illustrated collection, Sep 14 2015.
Leagle, “Atari, Inc. v. North American, Etc.”, by Wood and Eschibach, Circuit Judges, and Gordon, District Judge, Mar 2, 1982. “…North American [Philips] sought to obtain from Midway a license under the PAC-MAN copyright and trademark.” “Mr. Averett was told to make further changes in the game characters. As a result, the color of the gobbler was changed from yellow to its present bluish color.” “An independent retailer in the Chicago area nonetheless ran advertisements in the Chicago Sun-Time and the Chicago Tribune, describing K.C. Munchkin as “a Pac-Man type game.” “Based on an ocular comparison of the two works… K.C. Munchkin captures the “total concept and feel” of and is substantially similar to PAC-MAN.” Retrieved from Leagle, Sep 13, 2015.
Electronic Fun with Computers and Games, “E.F.G. Times: 10-year old Wins Pick Axe Pete Championship”, Feb 1983. “Tony Scardigno of Weehawken, New Jersey, was awarded one pound of gold…”. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, EFWCG collection, Sep 8, 2015.
Image of the Conquest of the World box cover from Encyclopedia Gamia - gaming.wikia.com/wiki/File:ConquestoftheWorldOdy2.jpg
Electronic Games, “Inside Gaming”, by Bill Kunkel, pg. 8 -9, Vol. 1 Num. 2, Mar 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
Halcyon Days – www.dadgum.com/halcyon.html
Videogaming and Computergaming Illustrated, “Focus On: I/O Breakdown!” by Vincent Papa, pgs. 19-24, Nov 1983. “Cheaper, more diversified, shoot-em-up-orientated Atari held eighty percent of the videogame market, Intellivision fifteen percent, and Odyssey five.” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Videogaming Illustrated collection, Sept 18 2015. Wikipedia – Munchkin – en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munchkin_(video_game)
Electronic Games, “Q&A”, by The Game Doctor, pg. 93, Jan 1983. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
The Odyssey² Homepage, archived Illinois newspaper article, “Electronic Game Wizards”, by Herbert G. McCann, Nov 26 1981
The Odyssey² Homepage, “The Odyssey² Timeline!” by William Cassidy
Electronic Games, “Electronic Games Hotline: Pac-Man Bites K.C. Munchkin!”, pg. 9, Jul 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
The Odyssey² Homepage! – Odyssey²/Videopac FAQ: The Essentials, by William Cassidy – www.the-nextlevel.com/odyssey2/faq/essentials/
The Voice installation diagram from Electronic Games, “Test Lab: Make Your Games Talk” by Henry B. Cohen, pgs. 110-111, Jul 1983. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection 
Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games, “Video Games Update”, by Danny Goodman, pg. 42, Vol. 1 No. 1, Spring 1983. Retrieved from Digital Press, Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games magazine collection 
Video Games, “Briefs: Atari v. Coleco & Imagic; This Means War!”, by Steve Bloom, pg. 80, Vol. 1 Num. 6, Mar 1983. Retrieved from Digital Press, Video Games magazine collection
Creative Computing, “Compleat Computer Catalogue, Miscellaneous, MPU Video Game”, pg. 28, Sep 1978. “Seven of the optional cartridges will have a suggested retail price of $19.95. The eighth cartridge, Computer Introduction, will carry a suggested list price of $24.95.” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Creative Computing collection, Sep 28, 2015.
Images of Sam Overton, as well as Ed and Linda Averett, and other information come from Odyssey Adventure, “So You Want to Be a Video Games Inventor”, photographers Fred Leavitt and Terry Moore, pg. 8, Issue 1 Winter 1982
Electronic Games, “The 1982 Arcade Awards”, pgs. 46-49, Mar 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
Arcade Express: Odyssey² Named Official Videogame of World’s Fair, “…located in the pavilion for America’s Electrical Energy Exhibit…”, pg. 2, Aug 15, 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Arcade Express newsletter collection
Images of Ron Bradford & Steve Lehner, as well as the Averetts & kids, and other information come from Odyssey Adventure, “Behind the Workings of the Mind”, photographers Fred Leavitt and Terry Moore, pgs. 4 – 5, Issue 1 Winter 1982
Images of the Sherlock Holmes game board and box art courtesy of The Odyssey² Homepage! – Ron Bradford Photo Gallery – http://www.the-nextlevel.com/odyssey2/articles/bradford/gallery.php
Electronic Games, “Games on Disc” by Henry Cohen, pgs. 24-27, Aug 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
Odyssey Adventure, “What’s New At ‘Odyssey West’?”, pg. 6, Issue 5 Winter 1983
Electronic Games, “Q & A” by the Game Doctor, pg. 53, Mar 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
Kaos’ Odyssey^2 Page – www.iaw.on.ca/~kaos/systems/Odyssey2/index.html
Electronic Games, “Preview of the New Videogames” by Arnie Katz & Bill Kunkel, pgs. 32-37, 66, Oct 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
I.C. When -1978- – www.icwhen.com/book/the70s/1978.html
Radio-Electronics, “Video Electronics – Space Wars”, by David Lachenbruch, pg. 4, June 1982. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Radio-Electronics magazine collection
Image of Odyssey Command Centre and other information from Radio-Electronics, “Videogames ’83″, by Danny Goodman, pgs. 56-58, Jun 1983
Electronic Games, “Players Guide to Programmable Videogames – Odyssey: The Flexible System”, pgs. 71 – 73, Vol. 2 Num. 9, Nov 1983
Odyssey2 Intro – Digital Press Online – www.digitpress.com/emu/o2_top.htm
Odyssey2 FAQ – http://www.austinvideogames.com/FAQs/FAQ_Odyssey2.htm
Thanks to William Cassidy at The Odyssey² Homepage!

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