In 1984 Olympic fever sweeps through the U.S. as Los Angeles prepares to host the summer version of the games. At the same time, Epyx is under pressure to produce a hit. Scott Nelson, one of the former Starpath programmers, had created a decathlon game for the Supercharger called Sweat!, but when the company merges with Epyx the project is shelved. Although this Atari 2600 game provides little in the way of actual program code, its subject matter is the impetus for Epyx’s sports extravaganza Summer Games. This project is chosen as a way of getting the new programming team from Starpath all working on the different sections required in the game. It is written in 100 percent assembler machine language, and the lead programmer is Stephen Landrum, accompanied by Randy Glover, Jon Leupp, Brian McGhie, Stephen Murdry, and Scott Nelson. This is the first game at Epyx to employ the use of a graphics artist, Erin Murphy, and from then on in they are used in the development of every game, along with a sound designer. There are eight Olympic events presented, including the pole vault, diving and skeet shooting, along with an impressive opening ceremony with the lighting of the Olympic torch. Each section features its own control method, with either frantic joystick waggling or complex timing moves. The various sports are all presented in loving detail, and Summer Games is one of the earlier games providing two-player simultaneous action on one computer. Up to eight people can play, and options include the chance to practice a single event, compete in a number of specified contests or going up against the full roster of competitions. A large selection of countries is available, each accompanied by their flag and a musical sample of their national anthems. The best times are saved as world records, providing motivation to keep practicing. Even though the game development tools must be built from the ground up, Summer Games is completed in under six months, and it goes on to become a huge success with over 200,000 units sold. The Games series become a major franchise for the company, followed by Summer Games II and Winter Games in 1985, World Games in 1986, California Games, the best-selling of the Games games, in 1988, and California Games II. Also in 1988 comes The Games: Summer Edition and The Games: Winter Edition, graphical revamps of the original Summer and Winter Games. In 2009, gnarly dudes and duceces can pole vault back to the 80’s with graphical revamps of Summer Games, Winter Games and California Games, all made by Magnusoft Deutschland GmbH and put out for the Android mobile platform and Windows by Epyx Deutschland.
Doing the Impossible
Building on their experience with the Jumpman games, Epyx releases Impossible Mission in 1984, quite possibly the greatest platform game ever created. Made by former Starpath employee Dennis Caswell, it has the player running around a huge underground complex in the guise of an acrobatic secret agent, attempting to put a halt to evil Professor Elvin Atombender’s plans for worldwide nuclear destruction. While traveling up and down elevators searching the various pieces equipment scattered about the place, our hero must avoid the deadly robots populating the rooms who are out to fry him. The robots are all amusingly different in attitude and competence, as some race at you firing electronic death while others can barely get their heads out of their RS-232 ports to notice you’re even there. Computer consoles are scattered about, which when accessed can disable the robots for a few short moments, or reset the elevators in a room.The game gives you a real-time countdown of six hours to collect the hidden puzzle pieces and put them together with your pocket computer, and every time the on-screen agent dies 10 minutes is deducted from the clock. When time runs out, Elvin dispatches the world with an evil cackle. There are also two rooms where the player can engage in a Simon-type game, following a pattern of colours and sounds to earn more lift inits or robot snooze codes.
Every aspect of this game gels amazingly: the unprecedented character animation of the lead character as he runs and does flying flips over his adversaries, the diabolical construction of the various rooms, and the atmospheric sound effects. One particular aural standout is the speech synthesis, done for the game by Electronic Speech Systems and the quality of which fails to live up to the programmers’ expectations. However, it still has an amazing effect on the overall feel of the game, with the mad Professor issuing the now-famous ominous welcome at the start of the game, “Another visitor. Stay awhile…..staaaaay forever!”, as well as an occasional command to his metal pants army, “Destroy him, my robots”. And of course, our hero’s agonizing scream of terror when he falls down a shaft, which makes me jump out of my chair the first time I hear it. The only problem is that Impossible Mission truly lives up to its name, with the puzzle component generally regarded as the hardest bit of gaming ever devised. There are dozens of pieces of the puzzle to be found, all of which must be arranged in order by getting flipped horizontally or vertically, making for a huge amount of possibilities. A call can be made to headquarters for help, but only at the expense of two minutes of clock time. Even with a low probability of seeing the conclusion, the game is a success, selling around 40,000 units. An inferior sequel, Impossible Mission II, follows in 1988 featuring an easier puzzle component but messier graphics. Impossible Mission 2025 is made in 1994 by Microprose’s MPS labs in the UK, for the Commodore Amiga and CD-32 platforms. While you’re STILL dealing with evil Atombender, and he’s STILL ensconced in a well-fortified complex guarded by lethal robots, and you’re STILL trying to find pieces of a puzzle you have to assemble to defeat him, the game does feature a twist in that you can choose between different characters to play as: a robot, a gymnast named Tasha, or soldier Felix Fly. Also included in the game is the complete version of the original. Owners of the Nintendo Switch console users get an updated version of the game (with original C64 version, and re-skinned version thereof) when Impossible Mission infiltrates their system in 2019, made by System 3 Software.
A Dream in the Hand(y)
At its prime, Epyx employs 200 people and is making 9 to 10 million dollars annually. Its best-selling product is the Fast Load cartridge, which speeds up the painfully slow loading process of the C64 1541 floppy disk drive fivefold, and sells around 350,000 units. The company also picks up some licensing deals from Mattel, after that company exits the video game and computer industry in early 1984. Barbie, G.I. Joe and Hot Wheels are positioned as pseudo-educational games under Epyx’s Computer Activity Toys line.
Heading into the final stretch of the 80’s, product sales are failing to meet company projections. The C64 is dropping off the scope as a gaming platform, and a hardware project called Handy is draining resources,. It is designed by Dave Needle and R.J. Mical, coming from the Amiga computer development team at Commodore. Handy is to be the world’s first colour handheld game device but is proving to be an elongated drag on Epyx, with two years and a reported $8 million sunk into its development. Needle and Mical leverage their other big invention to use for the Handy project – using an Amiga 2000 computer as part of the development environment for the handheld. Besides the expenses Epyx is incurring for this project, another problem is that its games are some of the most pirated computer titles around, with practically everyone with a C64 playing Summer Games and Impossible Mission but few actually paying for the privilege. Amid a lack of funds and little ability to actually manufacture the revolutionary handheld game system at scale, the Handy project is still debuted behind closed doors at the Winter CES in January of 1989; some of those privileged few who got a look must have been from Atari, as Handy is eventually sold to that company, on the verge of the 1989 Summer CES. The deal also makes Atari a part owner of Epyx. Announcing the colour handheld system as the PCES or Portable Color Entertainment System at the Summer CES , Atari eventually renames the system as the Lynx. Meanwhile, Epyx reorganizes, dropping the distribution part of the company to focus on game development for consoles. They also lay off 85% of their workforce, along with the departure of Mical, Needle and company head David Morse.
The new name of Atari’s handheld device highlights the fact that up to eight of the devices can be linked together via a cable, for head-to-head play. It also sports a 3 1/2-inch colour LCD screen with a resolution of 160×102 pixels, capable of displaying 16 colours at a time out of a palette of 4,096. Inside the case also resides a 16mHz 65C02 processor. Lynx sees a limited rollout, first hitting the New York City area on September 1, 1989. In the early part of 1990, the system begins selling in five more markets: Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Chicago, San Francisco and Boston. It is available nationally through 1990. While technically superior to the recently released Nintendo Gameboy portable game system, the $179.99 Lynx and its games lineup ultimately fail to compete against Nintendo’s juggernaut, even after a price slash down to $129.99 for Atari’s handheld in the early part of 1992.
Meanwhile, Epyx has been struggling. In 1988 they report that they will no longer publish games and scale down to a development house. In September of 1989, the same month as the initial release of the Lynx, Epyx starts laying off most of it staff. It later files for bankruptcy. The company struggles out of receivership long enough to port a few games to the PC, but eventually, the remains of the company are sold to Bridgestone Multimedia, specializing in Christian media products. This company, in turn, sells the major Epyx software rights to Atari Corp., who then ALSO go out of business. It appears that Hasbro, picking over the corpse of Atari in early 1998, has gained the Epyx game rights.
Game of Threads
One personal favourite of the Epyx games I feel I have to single out here before I close this entry is Dragonriders of Pern, released in 1983. Based on the seminal fantasy novels by Anne McCaffrey, the game is a stunning mix of political intrigue, diplomacy, strategy, and action. Assuming the role of Bendon Weyr, the player must forge alliances with a picky bunch or neighbouring kingdoms, carefully tailoring the amount of his aggressiveness or sniveling to suit the other leader across the negotiation table. Interspersed with this political chicanery is the occasional aerial battle against a shower of threads, not the most frightening of computer game adversaries ever created but who still provide a workout for your firebreathing charges. All of which is accompanied by a wonderful musical soundtrack. Produced right in the thick of the battle for the creative vision of Epyx, the designers of Dragonriders are listed as “The Connelley Group”, founder Jim Connelley’s gang of programmers at the company who prefer the strategy in “action-strategy” more than the action part. The game is not a commercial success, proving the bean-counters right on at least one point, and Connelley soon leaves the company, taking his staff with him. A sequel game for the C64 is commissioned by Epyx for release in 1984, titled Moreta: Dragonlady of Pern, based on the McCaffrey novel of the same name. Announced at the 1985 Winter CES, the plug is eventually pulled on this endeavor, with programmer John W.S. Marvin having around 1/3 of the game finished. As for the original Dragonriders of Pern, I feel if more people had noticed the game, and if the Epyx marketing team had gotten behind the product a little more aggressively, this game typifies the type of epicness we could have looked forward to from Epyx.
Sources (Click to view; inert links are kept for historical purposes)
Image of 1980 ad for Rescue at Rigel from Byte, pg. 216, Jun 1980. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Byte magazine collection
Image of Jim Connelley and other information from Compute! Gazette, “Inside View – Jim Connelley”, by Kathy Yakal, pgs. 70-71, Vol.1 No.3, Sept 1983
“slaving too long” Automated Simulations ad from Byte magazine, pg. 101, Oct 1980. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Byte magazine collection
Byte, “Character Variation in Role-Playing Games” by Jon Freeman, pgs. 186-190, Dec 1980. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Byte magazine collection
Softline, “New Players: Free Fall”, pgs. 28-29, Jan 1983. “Jon Freeman graduated magna cum laude from Indiana University with the bachelor’s degree in English and received the master’s degree in English from the University of California.” “She (Anne Westfall) had been designing and developing civil engineering programs on the TRS-80 for surveyors at Morton (Technologies) when she was persuaded to move to Automated.” Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Softline collection, Oct 30 2015.
Computer Gaming World, “Hobby and Industry News – ‘Jon Freeman and Anne Westfall have left Automated Simulations…'”, pg. 4, Jul/Aug 1982
InfoWorld, “This Company is Serious About Games” by Paul Freiberger, pgs. 10-11, May 11 1981
Edgemundo. “Atari ST 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 10 Feb. 2020. Web. 17 Aug. 2020. Game box images for the Atari ST versions of Datestones of Ryn, Temple of Apshai and Upper Reaches of Apshai
Retango. “Commodore 64 2D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 02 July 2019. Web. 20 Aug. 2020. Image of box for Temple of Apshai, C64 version
Jumpman Manual, Apple II, Epyx, 1983.
Computer Gaming World, “Inside the Industry – Hobby and Industry News”, “Michael C. Katz, former vice president and corporate communications at Coleco Industries, has been named president and chief executive officer of EPYX, Sunnyvale, CA.”, by Dana Lombardy, pg. 3, Mar/Apr 1983
Compute!, “The New Games: Winter Games review” by Selby Bateman and Kathy Yakai, pg. 34, Oct 1985
Electronic Games, Jumpman Ad, pg. 46, Jul. 1983
Epyx and Summer Games Homepage – rosenkranz.cjb.net
“Tradetalk.” Softtalk Mar. 1983: 227. Internet Archive. Web. 2 Feb. 2016. Michael C. Katz, former vice president of marketing and corporate communications at Coleco, has been named president and chief executive officer of Epyx/Automated Simulations.
Image of Randy Glover, and other information from Electronic Fun With Computers and Games, “Jumpman of the Year” by Phil Wiswell, pgs. 77-79, 94-95, Jan 1984. “RG [Randy Glover]: Yes, [Jumpman] was my first professional, published game.”. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, EFWCG collection, Sep 10, 2015.
WallyWonka. “Atari 2600 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 26 Nov. 2019. Web. 19 Aug. 2020. Image of game box for Summer Games, Atari 2600 version
Kondorito. “Nintendo NES 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 20 Feb. 2019. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of box for NES version of Winter Games
Retango. “Commodore 64 2D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 02 July 2019. Web. 20 Aug. 2020. Image of box for Summer Games II, C64 version
Edgemundo. “Microsoft MS-DOS 3D Boxes Pack (732).” EmuMovies. N.p., 17 May 2020. Web. 17 Aug. 2020. Image of game box for World Games
Edgemundo. “Atari ST 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 10 Feb. 2020. Web. 17 Aug. 2020. Game box image for the Atari ST version of California Games, Atari ST version
Cid67. “MS-DOS (ExoDOS) 2D Boxes (Pack 1).” EmuMovies. N.p., 28 Dec. 2017. Web. 20 Aug. 2020. Images of boxes for the MS-DOS versions of The Games: Summer Edition and The Games: Winter Edition
BLAZER. “Commodore Amiga 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 15 Sept. 2018. Web. 17 Aug. 2020. Image of box for California Games II, Amiga version
Screenshot from Moreta: Dragonlady of Pern from Electronic Games, “EG’s Forth Annual Fall Software Preview” by the Editors of Electronic Games, pgs. 32 – 39, Sept 1984. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, Electronic Games magazine collection
“Summer Games (2009).” MobyGames. Ed. Rainer S and Twitek. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of Summer Games box, 2009
“Winter Games (2009).” MobyGames. Ed. Rainer S and Twitek. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of Winter Games box, 2009
“California Games (2009) Box Cover Art.” MobyGames. Ed. Rainer S. N.p., 16 Mar. 2018. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of California Games box, 2009
Ceason1987. “Atari Lynx 3D Box Pack (All Official Releases).” EmuMovies. N.p., 11 May 2020. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of Lynx version of California Games
“01-004-Mission_Impossible-TV-fuse-logo.” The Student Printz. N.p., 20 Aug. 2020. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of Mission: Impossible titles
Zxspecticle. “Sinclair ZX Spectrum 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 25 May 2018. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Images of the Impossible Mission and Impossible Mission II game boxes for the ZX Spectrum
Edgemundo. “Atari ST 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 10 Feb. 2020. Web. 17 Aug. 2020. Game box image for the Atari ST version of Mission Impossible 2
Yaron. “Commodore 64 3D Boxes Pack (Template Included).” EmuMovies. N.p., 26 July 2019. Web. 19 Aug. 2020. Image of C64 box for Mission Impossible II
Kondorito. “Nintendo NES 3D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 20 Feb. 2019. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of box for NES version of Impossible Mission II
“Master System 3D Boxes Pack (Tab).” EmuMovies. Ed. Jardavius. N.p., 11 Aug. 2016. Web. 21 Aug. 2020. Image of game box for Impossible Mission, Sega Master System version
Ferrell, Keith. “Ten Industry Leaders Speak Out.” Compute! Nov. 1987: 14. Atarimagazines.com. Web. 30 Aug. 2020. Image of David Morse, 1987
Brown, Mark R. “Winter CES Show Report.” Comp. Jason Scott. Info Mar. 1989: 66. Internet Archive. 30 May 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2020. It [Handy] made its debut behind closed doors before a Select Few…the machine was designed by a group led by some of the original members of the Amiga design team, including R.J. Mical.
Antic, “News, Notes & Quotes: Atari Unveils Portable Game System” by Stephen Mortimer, pg. 13, Oct 1989
Quartermann. “Gaming Gossip.” Comp. ASleepyTelevision. Electronic Gaming Monthly Sept. 1989: 28. Internet Archive. 3 Feb. 2019. Web. 22 Oct. 2019. <https://archive.org/stream/ElectronicGamingMonthly_201902/Electronic%20Gaming%20Monthly%20Issue%20003%20%28Sep-October%201989%29#page/n27/mode/2up>. …Just prior to CES Atari worked out a deal to get the Epyx hand-held for an undisclosed number of cookies.
Dragonz, Ethereal, comp. “Hot Shots!” Game Players Nintendo Guide May 1992: 12. Internet Archive. 13 Aug. 2018. Web. 14 Sept. 2020. …Atari reports that the initial response has been excellent to the permanant [sic] lower price ($129.99) of the portable Lynx.
“News & Views: Epyx Reorganizes.” Info Nov.-Dec. 1989: 32. Internet Archive. Web. 27 June 2017. Epyx has announced that they will no longer be a software publisher, and will become instead a software developer. Epyx has reportedly laid off as much as 85% or their staff, and Amiga alumni RJ Mical, Dave Needle and Dave Morse have all quit the company. …speculation among industry insiders is that the $8 million Epyx reportedly invested int eh development of their handheld Lynx game machine strained the company’s resources, forcing their decision to reorganize.
“Atari Lynx Color System.” Computer Entertainer, Jan. 1990, p. 19.
The bad news was that shipments were limited in number and went almost entirely to the New York City area.
Skelton, Mindy. “An Interview with R.J. Mical.” Info July 1990: 28-30. Internet Archive. Web. 28 June 2017. Dave and I worked on it for two years…
Skelton, Mindy. “An Interview with R.J. Mical.” Comp. Jason Scott. Info July 1990: 29. Internet Archive. 30 May 2013. Web. 8 May 2020. Dave and I worked on it [the Handy project at Epyx] for two years; six months by ourselves and with up to twenty other people over another year and a half. ; We created an excellent development environment for the Handy. it’s all Amiga 2000 based… ; Epyx just ran out of money… Epyx didn’t have the wherewithal to bring Handy to market, so they had to find someone they could make a deal with.
Retango. “Commodore 64 2D Boxes Pack.” EmuMovies. N.p., 02 July 2019. Web. 20 Aug. 2020. Image of box for Dragonriders of Pern, C64 version
Games That Weren’t, Moretta – Dragonlady of Pern – http://www.gamesthatwerent.com/gtw64/moretta-dragonlady-of-pern/. Article updated on Oct 4, 2012. Referenced May 23, 2015
Museum of Computer Adventure Game History – Dragonriders of Pern – www.mocagh.org/loadpage.php?getgame=pern
Summer Games.jpg (1199×767). Digital image. The Old Computer. Web. 16 May 2021. Image of cover for the Sega Master System version of Summer Games, by Epyx
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Sound Library (Click to view)
Temple of Apshai theme
Crush, Crumble and Chomp theme
Jumpman jumps audio sample
Jumpman falls sound sample
Pitstop start sound sample
Pitstop finish sound sample
Pitstop tire change sound sample
Pitstop gas up sound sample
Summer Games opening theme
Summer Games anthem sound sample
Winter Games sound sample
World Games anthem sound sample
Impossible Mission Atombender sound sample
Impossible Mission Atombender sound sample
Impossible Mission puzzle sound sample
Impossible Mission running sound sample
Impossible Mission lift sound sample
Impossible Mission fry sound sample
Impossible Mission scream sound sample
Impossible Mission 2 theme
G.I. Joe theme
Dragonriders of Pern whois? sound sample
Dragonriders of Pern thread attack sound sample
Dragonriders of Pern theme music